This is charity which is binding in nature. This includes Sadaqah al-Fitr, etc. This form of Sadaqah is similar to Zakah in that it must be spent on the same categories as defined by the Qur’an, except that it is not a condition for the beneficiary to be Muslim.
This type of Sadaqah includes:
- Sadaqah al-Fitr
- Udhiyyah, Dam and Badanah
This is a charity which is a duty upon every sane Muslim, who possesses the value of Nisab beyond the basic necessities. Fathers are instructed to give Sadaqah al-Fitr on behalf of those children who have not reached of age.
The amount that must be given is equal to 1.6 kg of wheat or 3.2 kg of barley or its like. This does not mean that a person must distribute wheat or barley, one may give its equivalent value. (Because this fluctuates it is improper to specify a price, although it is usually between one and three pounds.)
Sadaqah al-Fitr is a very emphasized Sunnah (which according to many is the status of Wajib) which becomes due before ‘Eid Salah, although it is preferable to give it a few days before ‘Eid so that the poor actually receive it and are able to spend it on `Eid day. If one does not give the Sadaqah al-Fitr, it will remain due no matter how much time passes after ‘Eid.
This is an action which becomes necessary due to one imposing it upon oneself. This can be done if one wishes to express gratitude, and the action can take on a number of forms, including Sadaqah. If a person makes such an oath of giving charity, that then becomes SadaqahWajibah. If they are unable to uphold the oath, they will have to give Kaffarah, and may be sinful.
This is compensation for missing Salah or Sawm for a person who cannot perform them due to being in terminal illness or being deceased (in which case it is given out of a third of the wealth) or in the event of a person making a minor mistake in Hajj. The amount for each missed Salah or Sawm, or each minor mistake in Hajj is to give 1.6kg of wheat or its value (i.e. the same amount given for Sadaqah al-Fitr) to the poor. Fidyah is generally SadaqahWajibah. SadaqahNafilah may be given in addition either from the deceased’s estate or on their behalf in which case both the giver and the deceased are rewarded.
This is major compensation and like Fidyah it is also SadaqahWajibah. It applies in various situations such as if a person breaks a fast intentionally, breaks an oath, or kills someone, Kaffarah would then be binding as the form of redemption. There are five actions for which kaffarah will be necessary, however, they fall under two types.
The greater Kaffarah: For redemption of this a person may free a slave (which is no longer applicable) or fast for sixty consecutive days (If a person breaks a fast intentionaly they would need to fast for sixty consecutive days, unless they can’t fast due to poor health or old age, there are no exceptions to this). Failing that one may feed sixty poor people for a day (i.e. two meals a day, each meal is equivalent to a fidyah).
This Kaffarah applies to:
- Intentionally breaking Sawm (fast)
- Breaking Zihar (To consider one’s wife as Haram for oneself by comparing her to a Mahram – anyone too closely related to be marriageable)
- Being the direct cause of someone’s death (this is coupled with the set punishments).
Note: In the instance of not being able to feed sixty people in a single day then he may feed one person for sixty days, but in this case if he were to try to quicken payment of this by giving all the money in one day to one person, kaffarah would not be fulfilled, and his offering would only be equal to one days feeding.
The lesser Kaffarah: For redemption of this a person may free a slave (which is no longer applicable) or feed ten poor people for two meals in one day, or give each one of them clothing. Failing this, he may fast for three consecutive days (The order is also different from the greater Kaffarah).
This Kaffarah applies to:
- Breaking/violating Yamin (an oath)
- Breaking Ila’ (To take an oath on not having conjugal relationships with one’s wife)
This is also known as Qurbani or sacrifice. It is Wajib upon all mature Muslims who, on the day of `Eid al-Azha, possess Nisab. Whoever qualifies for this is required to purchase a sheep or goat of more than one year in age, and slaughter that in the name of Allah after the ‘Eid prayer preferably on the same day. The sacrifice can also be done on the two days after Eid. If one fails to make the sacrifice in these three days he will still have to donate the value of the animal (this remains Wajib).
From the meat he may eat himself and feed his family and also distribute meat amongst the poor Muslims. One is not responsible to give Zakah or any necessary Sadaqah for one’s spouse nor one’s mature children – they are responsible for themselves. One is however, responsible for only giving sadaqah al-fitr for one’s minor children, however, neither Zakah is given from their wealth, nor Udhiyyah given on their behalf.
Note: One may slaughter goats or sheep, which constitute one sacrifice each, or one may slaughter a larger animal (i.e. cow or buffalo) which will be counted as seven sacrifices each. In the event of living in a wealthy country, it is better that one sacrifices one part locally to fulfil the Sunnah of sacrificing oneself; and to arrange for the remaining sacrifices to be performed in a poorer country, where the poor may also partake of it.
Dam is of two types. one is like Udhiyyah in the sense that it is a religious requirement on adult Muslims. The only difference is that it is specific to people who are performing Hajj. This Dam is called Dam ash-Shukr.
The second type of Dam, like fidyah, is a means of compensation for mistakes in Hajj, but the difference is the magnitude of the mistake. Fidyah is given in lieu of minor mistakes while Dam is in lieu of major mistakes. Dam, like Udhiyyah, is the sacrifice of a sheep or goat. It can also be made a part (i.e. 1/7) of a larger sacrifice.
Badanah is like Dam, but while Dam is the sacrifice of a sheep or goat, Badanah is the sacrifice of a large animal, i.e. a cow or camel. This is the largest penalty in Hajj, and is specific to three acts.